Our resource hub is home to a wealth of articles, stories and videos about managing and living with type 1 diabetes.
Place your order for our free information packs that support adults and children who have been recently diagnosed.
Our researchers are working on different ways to develop a cure for type 1 diabetes - from growing insulin-producing beta cells in labs to hacking the immune system.
Learn about the technologies that can deliver insulin automatically when needed. And discover the next generation of insulins that are currently being developed.
You could win a cash prize of up to £25,000 when you play the JDRF lottery. As well as the chance to win great prizes, you’ll also help fund our research to find a cure for type 1 diabetes.
Your donations help support people living with type 1 diabetes today and fund the best treatment and cure research, no matter where in the world it takes place.
The announcement is the biggest treatment breakthrough for type 1 diabetes since the discovery of insulin.
This event was designed for anyone living with type 1 diabetes who would like to learn more about managing their wellbeing across a variety of contexts.
We provide a wealth of information and free resources to help you support and empower your patients or students.
Take our free course for schools to learn more about supporting pupils with type 1 diabetes in educational settings.
Home > Knowledge & support > Managing type 1 diabetes > Managing blood glucose levels > What should my blood glucose levels be?
Medically, if you have type 1 diabetes there are targets for what your blood glucose levels should be, and we’ll explain the reasons for this. But remember that you’re human, not a robot, so don’t be hard on yourself if you don’t meet these targets all the time. There are many factors that affect blood glucose levels, many of which – like heat, cold, illness, or periods – are outside of your control.
Time in Range (TIR) is the overall percentage of time that a person spends with their blood glucose levels within target range. TIR is calculated in real time, so you can check your TIR at any point based on the last 24 hours.
The target range varies from person to person, and you’ll need to speak to your Diabetes Healthcare Team about what your target percentage should be. In general, most people’s target range is between 3.9-10.0 mmml/L. Target percentages are based on things like age and how you take your insulin so they’re different for everyone.
To find out the percentage of time you’ve spent in range, you need to use a glucose sensor (either a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) or flash sensor).
If you use a CGM or flash sensor, your software will automatically calculate your percentage time in range.
Everyone in the UK with type 1 is entitled to sensor technology. Find out more about how this technology works and how to access it in our treatment and technology guide.
Find out more about TIR, including what it is, how to measure it and how to improve it if you need to.
There are also target ranges for when you check your glucose levels at certain points of the day, for example before or after you eat.
Your Diabetes Healthcare Team will tell you what your personal target should be, but as a a general guide, the target range for normal blood glucose levels are:
You may need to consult your doctor and change your treatment plan if:
Blood glucose goals may be modified for children and others who are at greater risk of hypoglycaemia.
If you’re pregnant it is important to have tight management of your blood glucose levels. Find out more about type 1 and pregnancy.
There are some pieces of type 1 diabetes technology that can help improve the amount of time you spend within the ideal targets. Continuous glucose monitors give you real-time information about your blood glucose levels and data which you can review with your Diabetes Healthcare Team. There is also flash glucose monitoring, which gives you glucose data when you scan a sensor on your arm.
With both these devices you can set alarms to let you know if you’re going too high or too low, which can help you keep within your target range.
Reviewing data can help you identify trends and patterns in your levels and help you address them.
Whilst you don’t have to be perfect, spending too much time out of range can cause health issues. Consistently high blood glucose levels can increase your risk of complications and low blood glucose levels can cause hypoglycaemia.
Very high blood glucose levels can be dangerous because, in extreme cases, it can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis which can be life-threatening.
When you have your regular diabetes check-up, you will also have your Hba1c levels reviewed by your Diabetes Healthcare Team. Find out more about Hba1c.
Learn more about how continuous glucose monitoring can help you manage your glucose levels in real-time
Find out more about complications and what you can do to help reduce your risk
Read more about how flash glucose monitoring can help you manage your glucose levels